The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

Sizes of reinforcing bars – Nominal size vs. Maximum size


When designing and detailing the reinforcement in a concrete structure, the dimensions referred to for bars and wires are based on “nominal sizes“. The word nominal size is used in place of diameter, referring in this way to diameter of a circle with an area equal to the effective cross-sectional area of bar or wire. […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Excel spreadsheet for evaluation of crack width according to Eurocode 2


Another addition for the Downloads section. In this post we’ll discuss about an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the crack width in concrete structures. The inputs required are: INPUT Characteristic compressive cylinder strength fck 30 N/mm² Characteristic tensile strength of reinforcement fyk 500 N/mm² Base b 300 mm Height h 500 mm QP moment […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Annual Probability of Exceedance for structures in New Zealand according to AS-NZS 1170


In this post an Excel spreadsheet based on the AS/NZS 1170 is available. Scope of the tool is to define the Annual Probability of Exceedance, P (and, hence, Average Recurrence Level, R), for Ultimate State Limit and Serviceability Limit States. The values are referred to New Zealand, as per Section 3, Table 3.3. The Annual […]

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Design for durability, part II – surface of members in interior environments


Following the previous post on durability (“Design for durability, part I – surface of members in contact with the ground“), in the following there are the requirements for surface of members in interior environments.

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Acid-soluble chloride, sulfate, shrinkage strain and other characteristic attributes for Normal-class concrete


In a previous post we have seen as the concrete in Australia is divided in Normal-class and Special-class. For the first one, the following are characteristic attributes: Mass per unit volume in the range of 2100 kg/m³ to 2800 kg/m³; Acid-soluble chloride shall not exceed: 0.8 kg/m³ for exposure classifications A1 and A2; the lesser […]

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Strength of soils at Serviceability and Ultimate Limit States


In a previous post we discussed about the relations to use in order to evaluate the embedment depth of the utility services poles direct-planted. To whom could have missed it, the post is the following: Embedment depth for utility services poles according to Australian Standard 4676 The relation discussed requires values for the foundation soil. […]

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Coefficient of exposure for wind action – Difference between ISO 4354 and AS/NZS 1170.2


The Australian Standards adopt in many parts recognized International Standards. For what regards the Wind Action the reference is the ISO 4354 “Wind action on structures”. One of the differences between the AS/NZS 1170.2 and the ISO 4354 is the exposure factor Cexp. The Australian Standard decided to not adopt that factor because it has […]

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Methods of Structural Analysis according to AS 4100 – Part 3: Braced frame vs Sway frame in the moment amplification method for elastic analysis


In the previous post, we discussed about the Elastic analysis at first-order with moment amplification. We have seen how this method can be a good alternative to a second-order analysis. Basically, we need to increase the moment by a certain quantity including in this way the second-order effects. We have also introduced the moment amplification […]

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Orientation factor in wind action evaluation according to Australian Standard 1170.2


Once obtained the Site wind speed, the Structural Engineer needs a Design wind speed. As said in previous article, the Site wind speed – as the name says – is only related to a specific site, no matter of what structure we are analysing. In order to evaluate the specific wind speed on structure, the […]

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Factors affecting the Site wind speed in Australian Standards


In the previous article we have discussed about the Site wind speed. It is independent of the structure shape and has to be seen only as a wind speed characteristic for a specific site. In fact, to determine the Site wind speed, the Structural Engineer takes the Regional wind speed and multiplies it by some […]

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