The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

Sizes of reinforcing bars – Nominal size vs. Maximum size


When designing and detailing the reinforcement in a concrete structure, the dimensions referred to for bars and wires are based on “nominal sizes“. The word nominal size is used in place of diameter, referring in this way to diameter of a circle with an area equal to the effective cross-sectional area of bar or wire. […]

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Exposure conditions for concrete according to British Standard 8110


Similarly to other international standards, the British Standard 8110-1 defines different exposure conditions based on the design environment. The environment can be: – Mild; – Moderate; – Severe; – Very severe; – Most severe; – Abrasive.   The mild environment is defined as: “Concrete surfaces protected against weather or aggressive conditions” The moderate environment is […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Torsional section properties for concrete sections according to ACI 314


In this post, an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the torsional section properties of concrete sections according to the ACI 318 is available. The sections are: – rectangular near the edge; – rectangular in interior position; – L-shaped; – inverted tee. The design for torsion as per ACI 318 is based on a thin-walled tube, […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for T-sections according to ACI 314


Following the Excel spreadsheet for the rectangular section, in the following you can download the spreadsheet for the evaluation of the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for T-sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for rectangular sections according to ACI 314


New addition for the Download section: the following Excel spread sheet calculates the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for rectangular sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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Unit weights for structural analysis


When dealing with structural analysis the first step is to evaluate loadings. We can have: dead loads; live loads; environmental loads. The dead load is the weight of the structure you are calculating. Dead loads can be calculated from the unit weights given in BS 648 named “Schedule of weights of building materials“. Here you […]

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