The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

Dead loads according to the Process Industry Practices (PIP)


In this post we are going to discuss about the loads defined in the Process Industry Practices (PIP). The PIP is a self-funded consortium of process industry companies that publishes common industry practices for projects and maintenance work. PIP develops “Practices” that are a compilation of Engineering standards from different Engineering disciplines. According to PIP, but […]

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Hydrodynamic effects during earthquakes on dams and retaining walls: Zangar’s theory


In this post we’ll study the Zangar’s theory for dams and retaining walls, following the previous posts on the same subject where we went through the theories of Westergaard (“Hydrodynamic effects during earthquakes on dams and retaining walls: Westergaard’s theory“) and von Karman (“Hydrodynamic effects during earthquakes on dams and retaining walls: von Karman’s theory“). […]

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Hydrodynamic effects during earthquakes on dams and retaining walls: von Karman’s theory


In a previous post we went through the Westergaard’s theory for the analysis of gravity dams under seismic actions (“Hydrodynamic effects during earthquakes on dams and retaining wall: Westergaard’s theory“). In this post we’ll see the von Karman’s theory of the same subject. Following the discussions on Westergaard’s theory, there were some proposals by different […]

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Hydrodynamic effects during earthquakes on dams and retaining walls: Westergaard’s theory


During an earthquake, there are dynamic effects on dams and retaining walls that can be highly variable. They can go from no damages at all up to massive destruction. One of the first studies on the evaluation of the hydrodynamic actions on a massive gravity dam during horizontal solicitations was given by H. M. Westergaard […]

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Class of concrete in Australia according to AS 3600 and AS 1379


In Australia, two different types of concrete are specified and are: – Normal-class; – Special-class. The Normal-class should have some attributes as defined in the AS 1379 and specified through some basic parameters. The parameters are: – standard strength grade; – slump at the point of acceptance; – maximum nominal size of aggregate; – method […]

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Embedment depth for utility services poles according to Australian Standard 4676


When dealing with methods for proportioning footings and poles, an useful reference is the Australian Standard 4676, titled “Structural design requirements for utility services poles”. For direct-planted poles, hence not on square pads, the Engineer can make some reasonable assumptions on the location of the centre of rotation of the footing and the vertical distribution […]

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Methods of Structural Analysis according to AS 4100 – Part 3: Braced frame vs Sway frame in the moment amplification method for elastic analysis


In the previous post, we discussed about the Elastic analysis at first-order with moment amplification. We have seen how this method can be a good alternative to a second-order analysis. Basically, we need to increase the moment by a certain quantity including in this way the second-order effects. We have also introduced the moment amplification […]

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The Dynamic Response Factor as per Australian Standard 1170.2


In order to evaluate the design wind pressure on a structure, the basic pressure has to be multiplied by an Aerodynamic Shape Factor (as per Section 5 of Australian Standard AS 1170.2) and by a Dynamic Response Factor (as per Section 6 of Australian Standard AS 1170.2). The Standard specifies that the value of the […]

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Corrective factors for uncertainties in wind action calculation


In the previous article we have talked about the Regional wind speed and we have seen as this value is function of an additional corrective factor for tropical cyclones regions C and D. This factor is included to allow for uncertainties in the prediction of ultimate design wind speeds for those regions. Structural Engineering often deals with 

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Site wind speed according to AS/NZS 1170.2


In order to obtain the Design wind velocity, the Structural Engineer needs to define the Site wind velocity. This value is substantially defined as the Regional wind velocity modified taking into account the direction and the exposure of the site. The formula used is: Md is a wind directional multiplier for the 8 cardinal directions […]

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