The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

Sizes of reinforcing bars – Nominal size vs. Maximum size


When designing and detailing the reinforcement in a concrete structure, the dimensions referred to for bars and wires are based on “nominal sizes“. The word nominal size is used in place of diameter, referring in this way to diameter of a circle with an area equal to the effective cross-sectional area of bar or wire. […]

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Structural design of steel pipe racks


Pipe racks are structures used in the petrochemical, chemical and power plants industries. They are meant to support pipes, power cables and instrument cable trays. Sometimes, pipe racks support mechanical equipment, vessels and valve access platforms. Basically, they are a connection between equipment and storage or utility areas. The main structural components of the pipe […]

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Dead loads according to the Process Industry Practices (PIP)


In this post we are going to discuss about the loads defined in the Process Industry Practices (PIP). The PIP is a self-funded consortium of process industry companies that publishes common industry practices for projects and maintenance work. PIP develops “Practices” that are a compilation of Engineering standards from different Engineering disciplines. According to PIP, but […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Excel spreadsheet for evaluation of crack width according to Eurocode 2


Another addition for the Downloads section. In this post we’ll discuss about an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the crack width in concrete structures. The inputs required are: INPUT Characteristic compressive cylinder strength fck 30 N/mm² Characteristic tensile strength of reinforcement fyk 500 N/mm² Base b 300 mm Height h 500 mm QP moment […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Annual Probability of Exceedance for structures in New Zealand according to AS-NZS 1170


In this post an Excel spreadsheet based on the AS/NZS 1170 is available. Scope of the tool is to define the Annual Probability of Exceedance, P (and, hence, Average Recurrence Level, R), for Ultimate State Limit and Serviceability Limit States. The values are referred to New Zealand, as per Section 3, Table 3.3. The Annual […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Torsional section properties for concrete sections according to ACI 314


In this post, an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the torsional section properties of concrete sections according to the ACI 318 is available. The sections are: – rectangular near the edge; – rectangular in interior position; – L-shaped; – inverted tee. The design for torsion as per ACI 318 is based on a thin-walled tube, […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for T-sections according to ACI 314


Following the Excel spreadsheet for the rectangular section, in the following you can download the spreadsheet for the evaluation of the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for T-sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for rectangular sections according to ACI 314


New addition for the Download section: the following Excel spread sheet calculates the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for rectangular sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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Traffic loads on road bridges: a practical example


After the recent posts on the traffic loads as defined by EN 1991-2, let’s make an example. We have a bridge covering a span of 50.0 m with a static scheme of simple abutment. The roadway is 7.50 m wide flanked on each side by walkways having a width of 2.0 m. The walkways are […]

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Traffic loads on road bridges: the Load Model 3 (LM3) in Eurocodes


Some road bridges must be designed against special traffic loads. This is the case of bridges that may experience a military use during their lifetime. The very conventional model used represents special vehicles that can exceptionally transit on bridges as abnormal vehicles. The application can concern one or several special vehicles. This case is detailed […]

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