The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

[DOWNLOAD] Excel spreadsheet for evaluation of crack width according to Eurocode 2


Another addition for the Downloads section. In this post we’ll discuss about an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the crack width in concrete structures. The inputs required are: INPUT Characteristic compressive cylinder strength fck 30 N/mm² Characteristic tensile strength of reinforcement fyk 500 N/mm² Base b 300 mm Height h 500 mm QP moment […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Annual Probability of Exceedance for structures in New Zealand according to AS-NZS 1170


In this post an Excel spreadsheet based on the AS/NZS 1170 is available. Scope of the tool is to define the Annual Probability of Exceedance, P (and, hence, Average Recurrence Level, R), for Ultimate State Limit and Serviceability Limit States. The values are referred to New Zealand, as per Section 3, Table 3.3. The Annual […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Torsional section properties for concrete sections according to ACI 314


In this post, an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the torsional section properties of concrete sections according to the ACI 318 is available. The sections are: – rectangular near the edge; – rectangular in interior position; – L-shaped; – inverted tee. The design for torsion as per ACI 318 is based on a thin-walled tube, […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for T-sections according to ACI 314


Following the Excel spreadsheet for the rectangular section, in the following you can download the spreadsheet for the evaluation of the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for T-sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for rectangular sections according to ACI 314


New addition for the Download section: the following Excel spread sheet calculates the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for rectangular sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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Traffic loads on road bridges: a practical example


After the recent posts on the traffic loads as defined by EN 1991-2, let’s make an example. We have a bridge covering a span of 50.0 m with a static scheme of simple abutment. The roadway is 7.50 m wide flanked on each side by walkways having a width of 2.0 m. The walkways are […]

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Traffic loads on road bridges: the Load Model 3 (LM3) in Eurocodes


Some road bridges must be designed against special traffic loads. This is the case of bridges that may experience a military use during their lifetime. The very conventional model used represents special vehicles that can exceptionally transit on bridges as abnormal vehicles. The application can concern one or several special vehicles. This case is detailed […]

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Traffic loads on road bridges: the Load Model 2 (LM2) in Eurocodes


The Load Model 2 (LM2) is a single axle model, which is applied when a local verification for short structural elements is required. Such elements can be crossbeams, upper flange stiffeners of othotropic decks or deck panels of composite slabs with steel sheeting. The internal forces due to LM2 may then be more critical compared […]

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Traffic loads on road bridges: the Load Model 1 (LM1) in Eurocodes


As discussed in the previous post, the Load Model 1 should be used for both global and local verifications. It is intended to cover flowing, congested or traffic jam situations with a high percentage of heavy lorries. In general, when used with the basic values, it covers the effects of a special vehicle of 600 […]

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Traffic loads on road bridges: the Traffic Load Models


In the Eurocodes there are four Traffic Load Models to be used for the determination of road traffic effects associated with Ultimate Limit and Serviceability Limit States. These load models for vertical loads represent different traffic effects. In short: – LOAD MODEL 1 (LM1):

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