The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

Archive for the 'Concrete structures' Category

Sizes of reinforcing bars – Nominal size vs. Maximum size


When designing and detailing the reinforcement in a concrete structure, the dimensions referred to for bars and wires are based on “nominal sizes“. The word nominal size is used in place of diameter, referring in this way to diameter of a circle with an area equal to the effective cross-sectional area of bar or wire. […]

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Exposure conditions for concrete according to British Standard 8110


Similarly to other international standards, the British Standard 8110-1 defines different exposure conditions based on the design environment. The environment can be: – Mild; – Moderate; – Severe; – Very severe; – Most severe; – Abrasive.   The mild environment is defined as: “Concrete surfaces protected against weather or aggressive conditions” The moderate environment is […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Excel spreadsheet for evaluation of crack width according to Eurocode 2


Another addition for the Downloads section. In this post we’ll discuss about an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the crack width in concrete structures. The inputs required are: INPUT Characteristic compressive cylinder strength fck 30 N/mm² Characteristic tensile strength of reinforcement fyk 500 N/mm² Base b 300 mm Height h 500 mm QP moment […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Torsional section properties for concrete sections according to ACI 314


In this post, an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the torsional section properties of concrete sections according to the ACI 318 is available. The sections are: – rectangular near the edge; – rectangular in interior position; – L-shaped; – inverted tee. The design for torsion as per ACI 318 is based on a thin-walled tube, […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for T-sections according to ACI 314


Following the Excel spreadsheet for the rectangular section, in the following you can download the spreadsheet for the evaluation of the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for T-sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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[DOWNLOAD] Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete for rectangular sections according to ACI 314


New addition for the Download section: the following Excel spread sheet calculates the Moment of Inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete, Icr, for rectangular sections. The reference is the ACI 314R-11 “Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings“. Basically, starting from the gross section:

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Design for durability, part II – surface of members in interior environments


Following the previous post on durability (“Design for durability, part I – surface of members in contact with the ground“), in the following there are the requirements for surface of members in interior environments.

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Design for durability, part I – surface of members in contact with the ground


Similarly to European Codes, the Australian Standards specify the durability requirements according to the exposure classifications. In the following, the requirements for the surface of members in contact with the ground. Members protected by a damp-proof membrane; Exposure classification = A1; Minimum concrete strength, f’c = 20 MPa; Minimum initial curing = continuously for at least […]

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Acid-soluble chloride, sulfate, shrinkage strain and other characteristic attributes for Normal-class concrete


In a previous post we have seen as the concrete in Australia is divided in Normal-class and Special-class. For the first one, the following are characteristic attributes: Mass per unit volume in the range of 2100 kg/m³ to 2800 kg/m³; Acid-soluble chloride shall not exceed: 0.8 kg/m³ for exposure classifications A1 and A2; the lesser […]

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Strength grade of concrete in Australia


The standard strength grade is basically the compressive strength capacity of the concrete. The standard grades in Australia, as per AS 1379 and AS 3600, are the following:

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