The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

Archive for the 'Codes issues' Category

Exposure conditions for concrete according to British Standard 8110


Similarly to other international standards, the British Standard 8110-1 defines different exposure conditions based on the design environment. The environment can be: – Mild; – Moderate; – Severe; – Very severe; – Most severe; – Abrasive.   The mild environment is defined as: “Concrete surfaces protected against weather or aggressive conditions” The moderate environment is […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Excel spreadsheet for evaluation of crack width according to Eurocode 2


Another addition for the Downloads section. In this post we’ll discuss about an Excel spreadsheet for the evaluation of the crack width in concrete structures. The inputs required are: INPUT Characteristic compressive cylinder strength fck 30 N/mm² Characteristic tensile strength of reinforcement fyk 500 N/mm² Base b 300 mm Height h 500 mm QP moment […]

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[DOWNLOAD] Annual Probability of Exceedance for structures in New Zealand according to AS-NZS 1170


In this post an Excel spreadsheet based on the AS/NZS 1170 is available. Scope of the tool is to define the Annual Probability of Exceedance, P (and, hence, Average Recurrence Level, R), for Ultimate State Limit and Serviceability Limit States. The values are referred to New Zealand, as per Section 3, Table 3.3. The Annual […]

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Design for durability, part II – surface of members in interior environments


Following the previous post on durability (“Design for durability, part I – surface of members in contact with the ground“), in the following there are the requirements for surface of members in interior environments.

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Design for durability, part I – surface of members in contact with the ground


Similarly to European Codes, the Australian Standards specify the durability requirements according to the exposure classifications. In the following, the requirements for the surface of members in contact with the ground. Members protected by a damp-proof membrane; Exposure classification = A1; Minimum concrete strength, f’c = 20 MPa; Minimum initial curing = continuously for at least […]

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Acid-soluble chloride, sulfate, shrinkage strain and other characteristic attributes for Normal-class concrete


In a previous post we have seen as the concrete in Australia is divided in Normal-class and Special-class. For the first one, the following are characteristic attributes: Mass per unit volume in the range of 2100 kg/m³ to 2800 kg/m³; Acid-soluble chloride shall not exceed: 0.8 kg/m³ for exposure classifications A1 and A2; the lesser […]

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Strength grade of concrete in Australia


The standard strength grade is basically the compressive strength capacity of the concrete. The standard grades in Australia, as per AS 1379 and AS 3600, are the following:

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Class of concrete in Australia according to AS 3600 and AS 1379


In Australia, two different types of concrete are specified and are: – Normal-class; – Special-class. The Normal-class should have some attributes as defined in the AS 1379 and specified through some basic parameters. The parameters are: – standard strength grade; – slump at the point of acceptance; – maximum nominal size of aggregate; – method […]

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Strength of soils at Serviceability and Ultimate Limit States


In a previous post we discussed about the relations to use in order to evaluate the embedment depth of the utility services poles direct-planted. To whom could have missed it, the post is the following: Embedment depth for utility services poles according to Australian Standard 4676 The relation discussed requires values for the foundation soil. […]

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Embedment depth for utility services poles according to Australian Standard 4676


When dealing with methods for proportioning footings and poles, an useful reference is the Australian Standard 4676, titled “Structural design requirements for utility services poles”. For direct-planted poles, hence not on square pads, the Engineer can make some reasonable assumptions on the location of the centre of rotation of the footing and the vertical distribution […]

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