The Structural Engineer's Corner

Eng. Onorio Francesco Salvatore

Archive for the 'Australia' Category

Traffic loads on road bridges: division of the carriageway into notional lanes according to Australian Standard 5100.2


The load models defined in the Australian Standard 5100.2 shall be assumed to occupy one standard design lane of 3.2 m width. The number of standard design lanes is defined as: n = b / 3.2 (rounded down to next integer) where: – n = number of standard design loads; – b = width between […]

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Design for durability, part II – surface of members in interior environments


Following the previous post on durability (“Design for durability, part I – surface of members in contact with the ground“), in the following there are the requirements for surface of members in interior environments.

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Design for durability, part I – surface of members in contact with the ground


Similarly to European Codes, the Australian Standards specify the durability requirements according to the exposure classifications. In the following, the requirements for the surface of members in contact with the ground. Members protected by a damp-proof membrane; Exposure classification = A1; Minimum concrete strength, f’c = 20 MPa; Minimum initial curing = continuously for at least […]

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Acid-soluble chloride, sulfate, shrinkage strain and other characteristic attributes for Normal-class concrete


In a previous post we have seen as the concrete in Australia is divided in Normal-class and Special-class. For the first one, the following are characteristic attributes: Mass per unit volume in the range of 2100 kg/m³ to 2800 kg/m³; Acid-soluble chloride shall not exceed: 0.8 kg/m³ for exposure classifications A1 and A2; the lesser […]

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Strength grade of concrete in Australia


The standard strength grade is basically the compressive strength capacity of the concrete. The standard grades in Australia, as per AS 1379 and AS 3600, are the following:

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Class of concrete in Australia according to AS 3600 and AS 1379


In Australia, two different types of concrete are specified and are: – Normal-class; – Special-class. The Normal-class should have some attributes as defined in the AS 1379 and specified through some basic parameters. The parameters are: – standard strength grade; – slump at the point of acceptance; – maximum nominal size of aggregate; – method […]

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Strength of soils at Serviceability and Ultimate Limit States


In a previous post we discussed about the relations to use in order to evaluate the embedment depth of the utility services poles direct-planted. To whom could have missed it, the post is the following: Embedment depth for utility services poles according to Australian Standard 4676 The relation discussed requires values for the foundation soil. […]

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Embedment depth for utility services poles according to Australian Standard 4676


When dealing with methods for proportioning footings and poles, an useful reference is the Australian Standard 4676, titled “Structural design requirements for utility services poles”. For direct-planted poles, hence not on square pads, the Engineer can make some reasonable assumptions on the location of the centre of rotation of the footing and the vertical distribution […]

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Coefficient of exposure for wind action – Difference between ISO 4354 and AS/NZS 1170.2


The Australian Standards adopt in many parts recognized International Standards. For what regards the Wind Action the reference is the ISO 4354 “Wind action on structures”. One of the differences between the AS/NZS 1170.2 and the ISO 4354 is the exposure factor Cexp. The Australian Standard decided to not adopt that factor because it has […]

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Ultimate Limit States and Serviceability Limit States in Australian Standard AS 1170


The Limit States used in Australia (AS 1170.0 – Structural design actions) are similar to those of other codes, like the ISO ones. There are: – Ultimate Limit States, ULS; – Serviceability Limit States, SLS. There are two different types of Serviceability Limit States: – SLS1 => the structure and the non-structural components do not […]

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